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ESL - Timeline
2001 European leaders meet in Nice to negotiate and sign what is now the Treaty of Nice.

1966 Jacques Médecin becomes mayor. After overseeing a boom in Nice, he flees to Uruguay in 1990 when it emerges he has stolen millions from the city.

1951 OGC Nice win their first of four Ligue 1 football titles during the 1950s.

1948  it’s in Nice, not in the USA that the first jazz festival in the world was born. For its first edition, the greatest of their time were there, starting with Louis Armstrong, Stéphane Grappelli and Django Reinhardt to name a few.

1942-3 Nice is occupied and administered by Italian forces. It is later occupied by Germans, who build a submarine base.

1917 Henri Matisse moves to Cimiez from Paris. Chagall, Picasso, Renoir, Cocteau, and Modigliani have also lived in the city over the years.

1902 Leon Serpollet becomes the first person to drive faster than 120km/h in his innovative steam-powered car he called the Easter Egg. He achieves this on the Promenade des Anglais!

1900 The Tramway de Nice electrifies its horse-drawn streetcars and spread its network throughout the city.

1881 Opera burns down and is re-built in 1882; the 4 rooftop statues represent theatre, dance, music and song.

Late 1800s Nice becomes a popular destination for aristocratic English holidaymakers (including Queen Victoria and Winston Churchill), attracted by the seaside and pleasant winter climate. The grand hotels and villas that typify the city today are erected.

1860 The Treaty of Turin makes Nice a part of France, as a reward for French assistance in the Second Italian War of Independence against Austria. A local referendum sees overwhelming support for the move.

1860 Frustrated by his wife’s lack of punctuality serving lunch, Sir Thomas Coventry asks the mayor to fire a daily noon cannon shot, like back in his home village in Scotland. The tradition continues today.

1713 After changing hands between the Duke of Savoy and various invaders for centuries, a peaceful spell enable the Duke to build the New Town.

1706 Nice’s castle is destroyed by the forces of Louis XIV after a cannonball lobbed over the fortress walls flies into a tiny window and lands in the munitions storage, causing a massive explosion that blows the sides out of the stone fortress. The stone is later used to build the Promenade des Anglais.

1600s Much of Nice’s distinctive baroque architecture is built (it has been restored in recent decades).

1561 Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, abolishes the use of Latin as an administrative language and establishes Italian as the official language in Nice.

1543 A local laundress called Catherine Segurane frightens an invading Turkish army away by baring her bottom whilst threatening them with a carpet beater. She becomes a folk hero.

1388 Nice places itself under the protection of the Counts of Savoy.

1294 The Count of Provence Charles d'Anjou spends the "the joyous days of Carnival" in Nice.

880 Saracens pillage and burn Nice.

7th century Nice joins the Genoese League formed by the towns of Liguria.

1st century BC Romans arrive and settle in what is now Cimiez.

350BC Nicaea probably founded by the Greeks who had previously settled Massilia (now Marseille). The town is named after Nike, the goddess of victory.

400,000BC First hominid settlements in the Nice area.
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